Archiv der Kategorie debian

autopkgtest 3.14 “now twice as rebooty”

Almost every new autopkgtest release brings some small improvements, but adt-virt-ssh you might have to update it: Previously, the setup script needed to respond to a reboot function to trigger a reboot, wait for the testbed to go down, and come back up. This got split into issuing the actual reboot system command directly by adt-run itself on the testbed, and the “wait for go down and back up” part. The latter now has a sensible default implementation: it simply waits for the ssh port to become unavailable, and then waits for ssh to respond again; most testbeds should be fine with that. You only need to provide the new wait-reboot function in your ssh setup script if you need to do anything else (such as re-enabling ssh after reboot). Please consult the manpage and the updated SKELETON for details.

The ssh runner gained a new --reboot option to indicate that the remote testbed can be rebooted. This will automatically declare the reboot testbed capability and thus you can now run rebooting tests without having to use a setup script. This is very useful for running tests on real iron.

Finally, in testbeds which support rebooting your tests will now find a new /tmp/autopkgtest-reboot-prepare command. Like /tmp/autopkgtest-reboot it takes an arbitrary “marker”, saves the current state, restores it after reboot and re-starts your test with the marker; however, it will not trigger the actual reboot but expects the test to do that. This is useful if you want to test a piece of software which does a reboot as part of its operation, such as a system-image upgrade. Another use case is testing kernel crashes, kexec or another “nonstandard” way of rebooting the testbed. README.package-tests shows an example how this looks like.

3.14 is now available in Debian unstable and Ubuntu wily. As usual, for older releases you can just grab the deb and install it, it works on all supported Debian and Ubuntu releases.

Enjoy, and let me know if you run into troubles or have questions!

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Ramblings from LinuxCon/Plumbers 2014

I’m on my way home from Düsseldorf where I attended the LinuxCon Europe and Linux Plumber conferences. I was quite surprised how huge LinuxCon was, there were about 1.500 people there! Certainly much more than last year in New Orleans.

Containers (in both LXC and docker flavors) are the Big Thing everybody talks about and works with these days; there was hardly a presentation where these weren’t mentioned at all, and (what felt like) half of the presentations were either how to improve these, or how to use these technologies to solve problems. For example, some people/companies really take LXC to the max and try to do everything in them including tasks which in the past you had only considered full VMs for, like untrusted third-party tenants. For example there was an interesting talk how to secure networking for containers, and pretty much everyone uses docker or LXC now to deploy workloads, run CI tests. There are projects like “fleet” which manage systemd jobs across an entire cluster of containers (distributed task scheduler) or like which auto-build packages from each commit of projects.

Another common topic is the trend towards building/shipping complete (r/o) system images, atomic updates and all that goodness. The central thing here was certainly “Stateless systems, factory reset, and golden images” which analyzed the common requirements and proposed how to implement this with various package systems and scenarios. In my opinion this is certainly the way to go, as our current solution on Ubuntu Touch (i. e. Ubuntu’s system-image) is far too limited and static yet, it doesn’t extend to desktops/servers/cloud workloads at all. It’s also a lot of work to implement this properly, so it’s certainly understandable that we took that shortcut for prototyping and the relatively limited Touch phone environment.

On Plumbers my main occupations were mostly the highly interesting LXC track to see what’s coming in the container world, and the systemd hackfest. On the latter I was again mostly listening (after all, I’m still learning most of the internals there..) and was able to work on some cleanups and improvements like getting rid of some of Debian’s patches and properly run the test suite. It was also great to sync up again with David Zeuthen about the future of udisks and some particular proposed new features. Looks like I’m the de-facto maintainer now, so I’ll need to spend some time soon to review/include/clean up some much requested little features and some fixes.

All in all a great week to meet some fellows of the FOSS world a gain, getting to know a lot of new interesting people and projects, and re-learning to drink beer in the evening (I hardly drink any at home :-P).

If you are interested you can also see my raw notes, but beware that there are mostly just scribbling.

Now, off to next week’s Canonical meeting in Washington, DC!

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Running autopkgtests in the cloud

It’s great to see more and more packages in Debian and Ubuntu getting an autopkgtest. We now have some 660, and soon we’ll get another ~ 4000 from Perl and Ruby packages. Both Debian’s and Ubuntu’s autopkgtest runner machines are currently static manually maintained machines which ache under their load. They just don’t scale, and at least Ubuntu’s runners need quite a lot of handholding.

This needs to stop. To quote Tim “The Tool Man” Taylor: We need more power!. This is a perfect scenario to be put into a cloud with ephemeral VMs to run tests in. They scale, there is no privacy problem, and maintenance of the hosts then becomes Somebody Else’s Problem.

I recently brushed up autopkgtest’s ssh runner and the Nova setup script. Previous versions didn’t support “revert” yet, tests that leaked processes caused eternal hangs due to the way ssh works, and image building wasn’t yet supported well. autopkgtest 3.5.5 now gets along with all that and has a dozen other fixes. So let me introduce the Binford 6100 variable horsepower DEP-8 engine python-coated cloud test runner!

While you can run adt-run from your home machine, it’s probably better to do it from an “autopkgtest controller” cloud instance as well. Testing frequently requires copying files and built package trees between testbeds and controller, which can be quite slow from home and causes timeouts. The requirements on the “controller” node are quite low — you either need the autopkgtest 3.5.5 package installed (possibly a backport to Debian Wheezy or Ubuntu 12.04 LTS), or run it from git ($checkout_dir/run-from-checkout), and other than that you only need python-novaclient and the usual $OS_* OpenStack environment variables. This controller can also stay running all the time and easily drive dozens of tests in parallel as all the real testing action is happening in the ephemeral testbed VMs.

The most important preparation step to do for testing in the cloud is quite similar to testing in local VMs with adt-virt-qemu: You need to have suitable VM images. They should be generated every day so that the tests don’t have to spend 15 minutes on dist-upgrading and rebooting, and they should be minimized. They should also be as similar as possible to local VM images that you get with vmdebootstrap or adt-buildvm-ubuntu-cloud, so that test failures can easily be reproduced by developers on their local machines.

To address this, I refactored the entire knowledge how to turn a pristine “default” vmdebootstrap or cloud image into an autopkgtest environment into a single /usr/share/autopkgtest/adt-setup-vm script. adt-buildvm-ubuntu-cloud now uses this, you shold use it with vmdebootstrap --customize (see adt-virt-qemu(1) for details), and it’s also easy to run for building custom cloud images: Essentially, you pick a suitable “pristine” image, nova boot an instance from it, run adt-setup-vm through ssh, then turn this into a new adt specific “daily” image with nova image-create. I wrote a little script to demonstrate and automate this, the only parameter that it gets is the name of the pristine image to base on. This was tested on Canonical’s Bootstack cloud, so it might need some adjustments on other clouds.

Thus something like this should be run daily (pick the base images from nova image-list):

  $ ./ ubuntu-utopic-14.10-beta2-amd64-server-20140923-disk1.img
  $ ./ ubuntu-utopic-14.10-beta2-i386-server-20140923-disk1.img

This will generate adt-utopic-i386 and adt-utopic-amd64.

Now I picked 34 packages that have the “most demanding” tests, in terms of package size (libreoffice), kernel requirements (udisks2, network manager), reboot requirement (systemd), lots of brittle tests (glib2.0, mysql-5.5), or needing Xvfb (shotwell):

  $ cat pkglist

Now I created a shell wrapper around adt-run to work with the parallel tool and to keep the invocation in a single place:

$ cat adt-run-nova
#!/bin/sh -e
adt-run "$1" -U -o "/tmp/adt-$1" --- ssh -s nova -- \
    --flavor m1.small --image adt-utopic-i386 \
    --net-id 415a0839-eb05-4e7a-907c-413c657f4bf5

Please see /usr/share/autopkgtest/ssh-setup/nova for details of the arguments. --image is the image name we built above, --flavor should use a suitable memory/disk size from nova flavor-list and --net-id is an “always need this constant to select a non-default network” option that is specific to Canonical Bootstack.

Finally, let’ run the packages from above with using ten VMs in parallel:

  parallel -j 10 ./adt-run-nova -- $(< pkglist)

After a few iterations of bug fixing there are now only two failures left which are due to flaky tests, the infrastructure now seems to hold up fairly well.

Meanwhile, Vincent Ladeuil is working full steam to integrate this new stuff into the next-gen Ubuntu CI engine, so that we can soon deploy and run all this fully automatically in production.

Happy testing!

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autopkgtest 3.5: Reboot support, Perl/Ruby implicit tests

Last week’s autopkgtest 3.5 release (in Debian sid and Ubuntu Utopic) brings several new features which I’d like to announce.

Tests that reboot

For testing low-level packages like init or the kernel it is sometimes desirable to reboot the testbed in the middle of a test. For example, I added a new boot_and_services systemd autopkgtest which configures grub to boot with systemd as pid 1, reboots, and then checks that the most important services like lightdm, D-BUS, NetworkManager, and cron come up as expected. (This test will be expanded a lot in the future to cover other areas like the journal, logind, etc.)

In a testbed which supports rebooting (currently only QEMU) your test will now find an “autopkgtest-reboot” command which the test calls with an arbitrary “marker” string. autopkgtest will then reboot the testbed, save/restore any files it needs to (like the tests file tree or previously created artifacts), and then re-run the test with ADT_REBOOT_MARK=mymarker.

The new “Reboot during a test” section in README.package-tests explains this in detail with an example.

Implicit test metadata for similar packages

The Debian pkg-perl team recently discussed how to add package tests to the ~ 3.000 Perl packages. For most of these the test metadata looks pretty much the same, so they created a new pkg-perl-autopkgtest package which centralizes the logic. autopkgtest 3.5 now supports an implicit debian/tests/control control file to avoid having to modify several thousand packages with exactly the same file.

An initial run already looked quite promising, 65% of the packages pass their tests. There will be a few iterations to identify common failures and fix those in pkg-perl-autopkgtest and autopkgtestitself now.

There is still some discussion about how implicit test control files go together with the DEP-8 specification, as other runners like sadt do not support them yet. Most probably we’ll declare those packages XS-Testsuite: autopkgtest-pkg-perl instead of the usual autopkgtest.

In the same vein, Debian’s Ruby maintainer (Antonio Terceiro) added implicit test control support for Ruby packages. We haven’t done a mass test run with those yet, but their structure will probably look very similar.

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vim config for Markdown+LaTeX pandoc editing

I have used LaTeX and latex-beamer for pretty much my entire life of document and presentation production, i. e. since about my 9th school grade. I’ve always found the LaTeX syntax a bit clumsy, but with good enough editor shortcuts to insert e. g. \begin{itemize} \item...\end{itemize} with just two keystrokes, it has been good enough for me.

A few months ago a friend of mine pointed out pandoc to me, which is just simply awesome. It can convert between a million document formats, but most importantly take Markdown and spit out LaTeX, or directly PDF (through an intermediate step of building a LaTeX document and calling pdftex). It also has a template for beamer. Documents now look soo much more readable and are easier to write! And you can always directly write LaTeX commands without any fuss, so that you can use markdown for the structure/headings/enumerations/etc., and LaTeX for formulax, XYTex and the other goodies. That’s how it should always should have been! ☺

So last night I finally sat down and created a vim config for it:

"-- pandoc Markdown+LaTeX -------------------------------------------

function s:MDSettings()
    inoremap <buffer> <Leader>n \note[item]{}<Esc>i
    noremap <buffer> <Leader>b :! pandoc -t beamer % -o %<.pdf<CR><CR>
    noremap <buffer> <Leader>l :! pandoc -t latex % -o %<.pdf<CR>
    noremap <buffer> <Leader>v :! evince %<.pdf 2>&1 >/dev/null &<CR><CR>

    " adjust syntax highlighting for LaTeX parts
    "   inline formulas:
    syntax region Statement oneline matchgroup=Delimiter start="\$" end="\$"
    "   environments:
    syntax region Statement matchgroup=Delimiter start="\\begin{.*}" end="\\end{.*}" contains=Statement
    "   commands:
    syntax region Statement matchgroup=Delimiter start="{" end="}" contains=Statement

autocmd BufRead,BufNewFile *.md setfiletype markdown
autocmd FileType markdown :call <SID>MDSettings()

That gives me “good enough” (with some quirks) highlighting without trying to interpret TeX stuff as Markdown, and shortcuts for calling pandoc and evince. Improvements appreciated!

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autopkgtest 3.2: CLI cleanup, shell command tests, click improvements

Yesterday’s autopkgtest 3.2 release brings several changes and improvements that developers should be aware of.

Cleanup of CLI options, and config files

Previous adt-run versions had rather complex, confusing, and rarely (if ever?) used options for filtering binaries and building sources without testing them. All of those (--instantiate, --sources-tests, --sources-no-tests, --built-binaries-filter, --binaries-forbuilds, and --binaries-fortests) now went away. Now there is only -B/--no-built-binaries left, which disables building/using binaries for the subsequent unbuilt tree or dsc arguments (by default they get built and their binaries used for tests), and I added its opposite --built-binaries for completeness (although you most probably never need this).

The --help output now is a lot easier to read, both due to above cleanup, and also because it now shows several paragraphs for each group of related options, and sorts them in descending importance. The manpage got updated accordingly.

Another new feature is that you can now put arbitrary parts of the command line into a file (thanks to porting to Python’s argparse), with one option/argument per line. So you could e. g. create config files for options and runners which you use often:

$ cat adt_sid

$ adt-run libpng @adt_sid

Shell command tests

If your test only contains a shell command or two, or you want to re-use an existing upstream test executable and just need to wrap it with some command like dbus-launch or env, you can use the new Test-Command: field instead of Tests: to specify the shell command directly:

Test-Command: xvfb-run -a src/tests/run
Depends: @, xvfb, [...]

This avoids having to write lots of tiny wrappers in debian/tests/. This was already possible for click manifests, this release now also brings this for deb packages.

Click improvements

It is now very easy to define an autopilot test with extra package dependencies or restrictions, without having to specify the full command, using the new autopilot_module test definition. See /usr/share/doc/autopkgtest/ for details.

If your test fails and you just want to run your test with additional dependencies or changed restrictions, you can now avoid having to rebuild the .click by pointing --override-control (which previously only worked for deb packages) to the locally modified manifest. You can also (ab)use this to e. g. add the autopilot -v option to autopilot_module.

Unpacking of test dependencies was made more efficient by not downloading Python 2 module packages (which cannot be handled in “unpack into temp dir” mode anyway).

Finally, I made the adb setup script more robust and also faster.

As usual, every change in control formats, CLI etc. have been documented in the manpages and the various READMEs. Enjoy!

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deb, click, schroot, LXC, QEMU, phone, cloud: One autopkgtest to Rule Them All!

We currently use completely different methods and tools of building test beds and running tests for Debian vs. Click packages, for normal uploads vs. CI airline landings vs. upstream project merge proposal testing, and keep lots of knowledge about Click package test metadata external and not easily accessible/discoverable.

Today I released autopkgtest 3.0 (and 3.0.1 with a few minor updates) which is a major milestone in unifying how we run package tests both locally and in production CI. The goals of this are:

  • Keep all test metadata, such as test dependencies, commands to run the test etc., in the project/package source itself instead of external. We have had that for a long time for Debian packages with DEP-8 and debian/tests/control, but not yet for Ubuntu’s Click packages.
  • Use the same tools for Debian and Click packages to simplify what developers have to know about and to reduce the amount of test infrastructure code to maintain.
  • Use the exact same testbeds and test runners in production CI than what developers use locally, so that you can reproduce and investigate failures.
  • Re-use the existing autopkgtest capabilities for using various kinds of testbeds, and conversely, making all new testbed types immediately available to all package formats.
  • Stop putting tests into the Ubuntu archive as packages (such as mediaplayer-app-autopilot). This just adds packaging and archive space overhead and also makes updating tests a lot harder and taking longer than it should.

So, let’s dive into the new features!

New runner: adt-virt-ssh

We want to run tests on real hardware such as a laptop of a particular brand with a particular graphics card, or an Ubuntu phone. We also want to restructure our current CI machinery to run tests on a real OpenStack cloud and gradually get rid of our hand-maintained QA lab with its test machines. While these use cases seem rather different, they both have in common that there is an already existing machine which is pretty much only accessible with ssh. Once you have an ssh connection, they look pretty much the same, you just need different initial setup (like fiddling with adb, calling nova boot, etc.) to prepare them.

So the new adt-virt-ssh runner factorizes all the common bits such as communicating with adt-run, auto-detecting sudo availability, doing SSH connection sharing etc., and delegates the target specific bits to a “setup script”. E. g. we could specify --setup-script ssh-setup-nova or --setup-script ssh-setup-adb which would then get called with open at the appropriate time by adt-run; it calls the nova commands to create a VM, or run a few adb commands to install/start ssh and install the public key. Then autopkgtest does its thing, and eventually calls the script with cleanup again. The actual protocol is a bit more involved (see manpage), but that’s the general idea.

autopkgtest now ships readymade scripts for these two use cases. So you could e. g. run the libpng tests in a temporary cloud VM:

# if you don't have one, create it with "nova keypair-create"
$ nova keypair-list
| pitti | 9f:31:cf:78:50:4f:42:04:7a:87:d7:2a:75:5e:46:56 |

# find a suitable image
$ nova image-list 
| ca2e362c-62c9-4c0d-82a6-5d6a37fcb251 | Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS (amd64 20140607.1) - Partner Image                         | ACTIVE |  

$ nova flavor-list 
| 100 | standard.xsmall  | 1024      | 10   | 10        |      | 1     | 1.0         | N/A       |

# now run the tests: please be patient, this takes a few mins!
$ adt-run libpng --setup-commands="apt-get update" --- ssh -s /usr/share/autopkgtest/ssh-setup/nova -- \
   -f standard.xsmall -i ca2e362c-62c9-4c0d-82a6-5d6a37fcb251 -k pitti
adt-run [16:23:16]: test build:  - - - - - - - - - - results - - - - - - - - - -
build                PASS
adt-run: @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ tests done.

Please see man adt-virt-ssh for details how to use it and how to write setup scripts. There is also a commented /usr/share/autopkgtest/ssh-setup/SKELETON template for writing your own for your use cases. You can also not use any setup script and just specify user and host name as options, but please remember that the ssh runner cannot clean up after itself, so never use this on important machines which you can’t reset/reinstall!

Test dependency installation without apt/root

Ubuntu phones with system images have a read-only file system where you can’t install test dependencies with apt. A similar case is using the “null” runner without root. When apt-get install is not available, autopkgtest now has a reduced fallback mode: it downloads the required test dependencies, unpacks them into a temporary directory, and runs the tests with $PATH, $PYTHONPATH, $GI_TYPELIB_PATH, etc. pointing to the unpacked temp dir. Of course this only works for packages which are relocatable in that way, i. e. libraries, Python modules, or command line tools; it will totally fail for things which look for config files, plugins etc. in hardcoded directory paths. But it’s good enough for the purposes of Click package testing such as installing autopilot, libautopilot-qt etc.

Click package support

autopkgtest now recognizes click source directories and *.click package arguments, and introduces a new test metadata specification syntax in a click package manifest. This is similar in spirit and capabilities to DEP-8 debian/tests/control, except that it’s using JSON:

    "x-test": {
        "unit": "tests/unittests",
        "smoke": {
            "path": "tests/smoketest",
            "depends": ["shunit2", "moreutils"],
            "restrictions": ["allow-stderr"]
        "another": {
            "command": "echo hello > /tmp/world.txt"

For convenience, there is also some magic to make running autopilot tests particularly simple. E. g. our existing click packages usually specify something like

    "x-test": {
        "autopilot": "ubuntu_calculator_app"

which is enough to “do what I mean”, i. e. implicitly add the autopilot test depends and run autopilot with the specified test module name. You can specify your own dependencies and/or commands, and restrictions etc., of course.

So with this, and the previous support for non-apt test dependencies and the ssh runner, we can put all this together to run the tests for e. g. the Ubuntu calculator app on the phone:

$ bzr branch lp:ubuntu-calculator-app
# built straight from that branch; TODO: where is the official" download URL?
$ wget
$ adt-run ubuntu-calculator-app/ --- \
      ssh -s /usr/share/autopkgtest/ssh-setup/adb
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/tmp/adt-run.KfY5bG/tree/tests/autopilot/ubuntu_calculator_app/tests/", line 93, in test_divide_with_infinity_length_result_number
  File "/tmp/adt-run.KfY5bG/tree/tests/autopilot/ubuntu_calculator_app/tests/", line 63, in _assert_result
    self.main_view.get_result, Eventually(Equals(expected_result)))
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/testtools/", line 406, in assertThat
    raise mismatch_error
testtools.matchers._impl.MismatchError: After 10.0 seconds test failed: '0.33333333' != '0.3'

Ran 33 tests in 295.586s
FAILED (failures=1)

Note that the current adb ssh setup script deals with some things like applying the autopilot click AppArmor hooks and disabling screen dimming, but it does not do the first-time setup (connecting to network, doing the gesture intro) and unlocking the screen. These are still on the TODO list, but I need to find out how to do these properly. Help appreciated!

Click app tests in schroot/containers

But, that’s not the only thing you can do! autopkgtest has all these other runners, so why not try and run them in a schroot or container? To emulate the environment of an Ubuntu Touch session I wrote a --setup-commands script:

adt-run --setup-commands /usr/share/autopkgtest/setup-commands/ubuntu-touch-session \
    ubuntu-calculator-app/ --- schroot utopic

This will actually work in the sense of running (and succeeding) the autopilot tests, but it will fail due to a lot of libust[11345/11358]: Error: Error opening shm /lttng-ust-wait... warnings on stderr. I don’t know what these mean, just that I also see them on the phone itself occasionally.

I also wrote another setup-commands script which emulates “read-only apt”, so that you can test the “unpack only” fallback. So you could prepare a container with click and the App framework preinstalled (so that it doesn’t always take ages to install them), starting from a standard adt-build-lxc container:

$ sudo lxc-clone -o adt-utopic -n click
$ sudo lxc-start -n click
  # run "sudo apt-get install click ubuntu-sdk-libs ubuntu-app-launch-tools" there
  # then "sudo powerdown"

# current apparmor profile doesn't allow remounting something read-only
$ echo "lxc.aa_profile = unconfined" | sudo tee -a /var/lib/lxc/click/config

Now that container has enough stuff preinstalled to be reasonably fast to set up, and the remaining test dependencies (mostly autopilot) work fine with the unpack/$*_PATH fallback:

$ adt-run --setup-commands /usr/share/autopkgtest/setup-commands/ubuntu-touch-session \
          --setup-commands /usr/share/autopkgtest/setup-commands/ro-apt \
          ubuntu-calculator-app/ \
          --- lxc -es click

This will successfully run all the tests, and provided you have apt-cacher-ng installed, it only takes a few seconds to set up. This might be a nice thing to do on merge proposals, if you don’t have an actual phone at hand, or don’t want to clutter it up.

autopkgtest 3.0.1 will be available in Utopic tomorrow (through autosyncs). If you can’t wait to try it out, download it from my people.c.c page ☺.

Feedback appreciated!

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Booting Ubuntu with systemd: Now in Utopic

Hot on the heels of my previous annoucement of my systemd PPA for trusty, I’m now happy to announce that the latest systemd 204-10ubuntu1 just landed in Utopic, after sorting out enough of the current uninstallability in -proposed. The other fixes (bluez, resolvconf, lightdm, etc.) already landed a few days ago. Compared to the PPA these have a lot of other fixes and cleanups, due to the excellent hackfest that we held last weekend.

So, upgrade today and let us know about problems in bugs tagged “systemd-boot”.

I think systemd in current utopic works well enough to not break a developer’s day to day workflow, so we can now start parallelizing the work of identifying packages which only have upstart jobs and provide corresponding systemd units (or SysV script). Also, this hasn’t yet been tested on the phone at all, I’m sure that it’ll require quite some work (e. g. lxc-android-config has a lot of upstart jobs). To clarify, there is nofixed date/plan/deadline when this will be done, in particular it might well last more than one release cycle. So we’ll “release” (i. e. switch to it as a default) when it’s ready :-)

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Booting Ubuntu with systemd: Test packages available

On the last UDS we talked about migrating from upstart to systemd to boot Ubuntu, after Mark announced that Ubuntu will follow Debian in that regard. There’s a lot of work to do, but it parallelizes well once developers can run systemd on their workstations or in VMs easily and the system boots up enough to still be able to work with it.

So today I merged our systemd package with Debian again, dropped the systemd-services split (which wasn’t accepted by Debian and will be unnecessary now), and put it into my systemd PPA. Quite surprisingly, this booted a fresh 14.04 VM pretty much right away (of course there’s no Plymouth prettiness). The main two things which were missing were NetworkManager and lightdm, as these don’t have an init.d script at all (NM) or it isn’t enabled (lightdm). Thus the PPA also contains updated packages for these two which provide a proper systemd unit. With that, the desktop is pretty much fully working, except for some details like cron not running. I didn’t go through /etc/init/*.conf with a small comb yet to check which upstart jobs need to be ported, that’s now part of the TODO list.

So, if you want to help with that, or just test and tell us what’s wrong, take the plunge. In a 14.04 VM (or real machine if you feel adventurous), do

  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:pitti/systemd
  sudo apt-get update
  sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

This will replace systemd-services with systemd, update network-manager and lightdm, and a few libraries. Up to now, when you reboot you’ll still get good old upstart. To actually boot with systemd, press Shift during boot to get the grub menu, edit the Ubuntu stanza, and append this to the linux line: init=/lib/systemd/systemd.

For the record, if pressing shift doesn’t work for you (too fast, VM, or similar), enable the grub menu with

  sudo sed -i '/GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT/ s/^/#/' /etc/default/grub
  sudo update-grub

Once you are satisfied that your system boots well enough, you can make this permanent by adding the init= option to /etc/default/grub (and possibly remove the comment sign from the GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT lines) and run sudo update-grub again. To go back to upstart, just edit the file again, remove the init=sudo update-grub again.

I’ll be on the Debian systemd/GNOME sprint next weekend, so I feel reasonably well prepared now. :-)

Update: As the comments pointed out, this bricked /etc/resolv.conf. I now uploaded a resolvconf package to the PPA which provides the missing unit (counterpart to the /etc/init/resolvconf.conf upstart job) and this now works fine. If you are in that situation, please boot with upstart, and do the following to clean up:

  sudo rm /etc/resolv.conf
  sudo ln -s ../run/resolvconf/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf

Then you can boot back to systemd.

Update 2: If you want to help testing, please file bugs with a systemd-boot tag. See the list of known bugs when booting with systemd.

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How to watch system D-BUS method calls

The current default D-BUS configuration (at least on Ubuntu) disallows monitoring method calls on the system D-BUS (dbus-monitor --system), which makes debugging rather cumbersome; this has worked years ago, but apparently got changed for security reasons. It took me a half an hour to figure out how to enable this for debugging, and as this has annoyingly little Google juice (I didn’t find any solution), let’s add some.

The trick seems to be to set a global policy to be able to eavesdrop any method call after the individual /etc/dbus-1/system.d/*.conf files applied their restrictions, for which there is already a convenient facility. Create a file /etc/dbus-1/system-local.conf with

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE busconfig PUBLIC
  "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Bus Configuration 1.0//EN"

  <policy user="root">
    <!-- Allow everything to be sent -->
    <allow send_destination="*" eavesdrop="true"/>
    <!-- Allow everything to be received -->
    <allow eavesdrop="true"/>
    <allow send_type="method_call"/>

Then sudo dbus-monitor --system displays everything. Needless to say that you don’t want this file on any production system!

Does anyone know an easier way? My first naive stab was to run dbus-monitor as root, but that doesn’t make any difference at all.

Update: Turns out this is already described in a better way at Yay me for not finding that.. I updated above recipe to limit access to root, which is much better indeed.

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